By sampling the rocks and separating certain minerals (such as quartz or pyroxene) and calculating the amount of these minerals (as a ratio to other, stable, minerals), we can work out how long the rock has been exposed on the earth’s surface.
Cosmogenic nuclides are rare nuclides that form in surface rocks because of bombardment by high-energy cosmic rays.
How was vegetation distributed across North America during the late Wisconsin glaciation?
If you are a stable isotope researcher, the imprecision of the description will drive you mad.
Cartoon illustrating cosmogenic nuclide exposure ages. A glacier transports an erratic boulder, and then recedes, exposing it to cosmic rays.
Spallation reactions occur in minerals in the rocks upon bombardment by cosmic rays.
Without a doubt, an understanding of ancient climate is one of the most critical studies underway in Quaternary geology.
What were temperatures like during the last ice age?